Рефераты на гуманитарные темы
Темы для экзамена по английскому языку
Great Britain is not large. It takes just six hours in a fast train from London to Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. Great Britain lies not far from continent of Europe. It is separated from the continent by the North Sea and English Channel.” Great Britain” has several different names. Some people say “Britain” or “the United Kingdom” , or just “UK” . There are four different countries in the United Kingdom: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Britain is only a small country, but every part is different. Scotland is a land of mountains, lakes and romantic castles. The winters are cold, with plenty of snow, but the summers are often warm and sunny. Most farmers keep sheep and there are many small factories, which make fine sweaters from their wool.
Northern Ireland has its problems but it has beauty too. In the warm wet climate, the grass grows a brilliant green, and much of the land is farming country. Wales is a special place, a country of mountains and pretty valleys. But Wales has plenty of industry too, with many factories and coal mines. The Midlands, known as the heart of England is the largest industrial part in the country. The most important industrial cities are Manchester, Sheffield, Liverpool, which is one of Britain’s big parts, and Birmingham. The two famous Midlands cities, Stratford on Avon and Oxford are connected with English culture: Stratford is the birthplace of great William Shakespeare and Oxford is famous for its university.
The United States of America -the richest and one of the biggest countries in the world - has several names. People say “The United States” , “The States” , “America” or just “the USA” or “the US” .
There are fifty states in the USA and over 200 million, people live in them. There is no “American climate” or “American countryside” . Every part of the country is different, from Alaska in the north, covered with snow and ice, to tropical Florida in the south.
The American Indians were the first people to live in that vast land. They had a fascinating, ancient culture, and rich traditions of language and customs. But then, the immigrants came. Most came from Europe, but there were also many from the Middle East and Africa.
You can find almost anything in America. There are mountains and deserts, old churches and moon rockets, homes with three cars and homes with no electric lights at all.
The United States is a young country. Its written history is only a few hundred years old. It is sometimes, in fact, called the “New World” . Over the last four hundred years millions of people have come to start a new life in this “New World” . Americans are not afraid of new ideas. They built the first skyscrapers and they put the first man on the Moon. They like to be modern. They like exciting, modern cities, new houses, and new cars. At the same time, Americans love old things. They like to visit historic houses and museums. They build old pioneer houses and remember the days of “Wild West” . Americans are interested in old traditions, but they are good at making new traditions too.
Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. The vast territory of the Russian Federation stretches from the Baltic Sea in the West to the Pacific Ocean in the East, from the Arctic Ocean in the North to the Black Sea in the South. Due to the large territory the climate and nature are of various types in Russia. The climate of Siberia is continental with very cold winters and hot and dry summers. The climate in the central part of Russia is rather mild. In the south of Russia the climate is subtropical.
Russia is a country of thick forests, high mountains and long rivers. The longest rivers are the Volga in Europe and the Ob., Yenissei and the Lena in Asia. Lake Baikal is the biggest and the deepest in the world. It’s famous for its crystal clean water.
Russia is rich in natural resources such as gas, oil, coal. Russia has one-sixth of the world forests. Our country has a glorious history. Russian people suffered from many wars. But they never attacked any other country.
Russia gave the world such famous writers and poets as Tolstoi, Dostoevsky, Pushkin. Such composer as Tchaikovvsky, Glinka, Borodin are admired in the world. The emblem of Russia is a double-headed eagle, the most ancient symbols. The symbol of Russia is a three-coloured flag. Is has three horizontal stripes: white, blue, red. White represents peace, blue represents loyalty, and red stands for valour. The capital of Russia is Moscow.
The British press
The press is a mirror of current events. This proves to be true when you look through any newspaper. There are a lot of photos, articles, short and long, that inform readers of the latest events.
It has been claimed that the British read more newspapers than any other people throughout the United Kingdom.
All British papers can be classified as either “quality” or “popular” papers. A “quality” paper is a serious national paper that aims at the educated reader. The best known British newspapers which give serious coverage of the news and comment are “The Times” , “The Gardian” , “The Financial Times” and “The Independent” . They contain information on home and foreign affairs, serious editorials, art and literary reviews. They provide up-to-date financial information and professional advertising.
Some newspapers have colour supplement, with many photographs and advertisements. A popular paper is a newspaper that is designed for the undemanding reader. Such papers have brief and direct news reports and a large number of photographs. Much attention is given to personal stories. Especially when they mention a figure in the public eye, such as a member of a royal family, a political figure or a film star. The style of English in these newspapers is often conversational with much use of slang, catchy headlines. Among these newspapers are “The Daily Express” , “The Daily Mirror” , “The Star” . In addition to national daily newspapers there are nine national papers published on Sundays. Several of them include coloured magazines.
Stavropol is the main town of the Stavropol Territory. It is situated in the North Caucasus. Stavropol was founded in 1777 as a fortress. A presen- day Stavropol is young and beautiful. Wide streets, spacious squares, multi storeyed blocks of houses and offices add to the beauty of the town. Stavropol in summer is one big park full of flowers.
Stavropol is a cultural center of the Stavropol Territory. There are three universities, many colleges and schools here. Stavropol Drama Theatre is the oldest theatre in the North Caucasus. The town has a puppet theatre, a circus and many cinemas. There are many places of interest in Stavropol. Near the cinema “Rodina” you can see a piece of an ancient wall. You can also see a simbolic teht with the key to the town. That’s the place from where our town began to grow.
You can see a wonderful view of Stavropol from Komsomolskaya Gorka. It’s a monument to Russian soldiers who died that we might live.
There are three big parks, we can say forests in our town.
People like to walk there, especially in fine weather.
The British Library
The British Library is the largest public library in Britain. It consists of the Reference Division, the Bibliographic Service Division, the National Sound Archive and the Research and Development Department in London, and the Lending Division in Yorkshire.
The Reference Division has its origins in the library departments of the British Museum founded in 1753. It is housed within the same 19th century building of the British Museum, with more than 9 million books stored along two miles of shelving, and includes a Gutenburg Bible, the Magna Carta, medieval illuminated manuscripts and original texts by Shakespeare, Dickens, da Vinci and many others. The Reading Room of the British Library is a centre of serious study in all fields. It is used by university professors and lecturers, and by those who are engaged in research in their spare time.
The richness of the collections in different subjects makes the Library specially useful for journalists and writers.
The Library of Congress today is among the world’s largest. It was established as a reference library in 1800, and occupied one room in the building of the United States Capital Washington. These structures hold more than 80 million items in collection of books, newspapers, periodicals, manuscripts, films, maps, and work of drama, music, and art. The Library’s archives keep a great number of important and exciting documents from American history.
Most people like animals. They keep animals at home as pets. Pets may be different. People like dogs and cats, birds and hamsters, rabbits and hedgehogs, some people even like snakes.
But you can’t keep any animals as a pet even if you like him very much. Can a crocodile make a good pet? Or a lion, or a tiger, or a bear? You may love them, but will they love you? Some day when they are big they may become dangerous.
As for me, I prefer dogs. They are so clever and truthful. When they look at you with their beautiful eyes it seems to you that they understand you but can’t talk.
People teach dogs to understand commands, to do some tricks. And it think dogs teach people to be kinder, to think of others. People change for better when they keep pets.
Sure, pets need much care. You must keep the place where they sleep and eat tidy and clean, you must give them three meals a day. Dogs need more attention and care than cats. You must take then for walks at least two times a day.
I have a dog as a pet. His name is Ret. I like him very much. I bought him. My dog is kind. He has a black nose, brown and black fur. My dog is pedigree. He likes to bathe. Ret enjoys Chappi and bones. I go for a walk with Ret. My father helps me to take care of the dog. I like Ret very much. Ret is a very big dog. He lives in the dog house. We like Ret.
I help about the house
We live in a big house. Our flat is on the 3-th floor. We have 3 rooms and a kitchen. The flat /house/ has all modern conveniences: gas, electricity, central heating, cold and hot running water. It’s difficult for my mother to run the house herself. I’m big enough to help her. Everybody in our family has his own duties. As for me, my duty is to keep the right things in the right places. It means that I must keep my room tidy and clean fold up my clothes.
Usually I tidy up twice a week, on Wednesday and on Saturday. I open the window in any weather to air the room. After that I dust the furniture, water the flowers. We do not sweep the floor. We use a vacuum cleaner for this.
There is a lot of work in the kitchen. I clean the taps, iron the towels and curtains wash up after meals.
I do my best to help my mother to run the house. And I’m glad when mother is pleased with me.
Sometimes I go shopping. I buy bread, butter, milk. My father’s duty is to take our dog for a walk. But he doesn’t like it. So I take my dog for a walks in the morning.
Everybody likes holidays. New Year, Christmas, May day and others. But these holidays are for all. There is one holiday in a year that belongs only to you. It’s your birthday.
My birthday was on the 5 of July. In the morning my parents wished me many happy returns of the day and gave me presents. Mother gave me a jeans, father bought me a recorder. The day began wonderfully.
I invited my friends to my birthday party. They came at 4 o’clock in the afternoon and brought me a lot of presents – books, sweets, toys.
Mother cooked many tasty, things, among them was a beautiful birthday cake with ten candles in it. I was ten that day. We enjoyed tea with the cake and sweets and fruit. After tea we had a lot of fun. We played games, danced and sang songs.
In the evening my Granny and Grandpa came. They brought me a lovely puppy as a present. It has always been my dream to have a puppy! I thanked my Grandparents and kissed them. Really, I had a wonderful birthday.
New Year party
Children all over the world enjoy New Year. They know father frost will come and give them presents. They like to have a fir tree at home. It’s fun to decorate it with shiny toys and coloured lights. And it’s nice to find a surprise under it in the morning. Children like to go to a big New Year party where they sing and dance around a beautiful New Year tree.
I like it when Father Frost comes together with Snow Maiden. Children recite poems, sing songs, then Father Frost gives them presents.
When I was little I be lived that Father Frost and Snow Maiden were real. I was so upset when I learn that they only actors. I like New Year Parties at home, too. Father buys a New Year tree. In the evening we decorate it together. There are many shiny balls, flags, lamps on the New Year tree. Mother usually cooks a holiday dinner. There are so many tasty things on the table.
At 10 o’clock guests come. They wish us happy New Year. We watch holiday programs or TV. At 12 o’clock the Kremlin clock strikes and the New Year comes. We congratulate each other and gull our best wishes. I think New Year is the best holiday.
Fables are short and wise stories about animals and people. They teach us to be kind and not to boast. When we read fables we see people in the animals. We laugh at silly and greedy characters. Fables teach us not to be silly and to be pleased with what we have.
I want to tell you a short story about a greedy lion. Once he caught a hare and wanted to eat it. But then he saw a deer, of course a deer is a bigger dinner than a hare, so the lion let the hare go and ran after the deer, but couldn’t catch him. Now the lion had no dinner at all. Some times it is wiser to be pleased with what you have. People must remember fables and the lessons they teach us.
We all love and admire Esop’s fables. Esop lived 2500 years ago in Greece. He told his fables to many people and they remembered them. Millions of people all over the world now read Esop’s fables.
Summer is wonderful
Summer is wonderful! There are many long sunny days and there is no school! There are new friends and many interesting things to see and to do.
Some children spend their holidays at the seaside, some in the mountains and some in the country.
Isn’t it nice to spend some weeks out of a noisy town?
Isn’t it to walk in the green fields? To watch the clouds? To sit down by a river or a lake on soft green grass? To climb the high hills? To swim and to fish? To play games outdoors all the time. I think I was the happiest of all because I was at a wonderful children’s camp. Children from different towns gather here every year.
In the morning we swam and bathed in the beautiful sea and played games on the yellow sand. In the evening we made a camp-fire, sat around it and sang songs. We all became good friends.
The day to leave came too soon. We had a very good time at camp with our new friends. Children find a lot of things to enjoy, and the summer months go so quickly. Then autumn comes and school begins.
At the library
You can hardly find a boy or a girl who is not fond of reading. Books open a wonderful world to us. Many people have their own libraries at home. But still they go to public libraries to get one or another new book.
There is library in our school too. It’s not too big there is a wide choice of books there. Fairy tales and war stories, poems and novels, science fiction and fables. You can come and choice a book to your liking.
The library begins its work at 9 o’clock and is closed at 5. If you don’t know what book to take, a librarian will help you with your choice. A pupil is allowed to take two books at a time. Books need care as anything else. Going to the library don’t forget the library rules.
- Wash your hands before you begin to read.
- Do not write anything on the pages with a pen.
- Do not make drawings in the book.
- Do not make dog’s ears in the book.
- Do not tear the pages.
- Do not lose your books or leave them in shops or buses. That means that you lose your friends.
If you keep all these rules you’ll make a good reader. Books are our great friends. They teach us a lot of useful things.
What is a hobby? It’s something that you like to do when you have time to spare. People like to do different things, sometimes hobbies are very unusual. Extravagant people prefer to collect some special things. I remember a film about a girl whose hobby was to collect echoes. She lived in the Crimea. She used to explore mountains on the shore, and she found different echoes there among the cliffs.
There was a man who collected old trains. Another man collected old cars. But such collections need a lot of money and the place where to keep them. More often people are fond of collecting small things: stamps, match-boxes, coins, stickers.
Very often people collect stamps, envelopes, postcards. It's a traditional hobby of most children. I should say that stamps open the world for you. It’s interesting to imagine those countries from where the letters come. There in nothing better than to get a letter from your pen-friend and to see a new stamp on it. Some of the stamps are very beautiful. We learn many interesting things about these countries. Sometimes we stage fairy tales in English. Its great!
A year is long time. Lot’s of things happen in a year. There are four seasons in a year. All the seasons are nice: spring, summer, autumn and winter. Spring is the morning of the year. In spring nature awakens and the weather gets warmer, warmer, warmer. The fields are covers with first fresh green grass and flowers. The forests are filled with bird’s songs. The sky is blue and sun shines brightly. At night millions stars shine in the darkness.
When summer comes, the weather gets warmer and sometimes it’s very hot. It’s school children’s holidays' time. Some of them go to the seaside with their parents, others go to the country. Summer is wonderful. It’s nice to walk in the green fields, to play with friends, to swim and to fish. Children find a lot of things to enjoy in summer.
After summer autumn comes. We call autumn a tasty season. It’s harvest time when crops are gathered in. The days get shorter and nights get longer. The woods turn yellow-red and brown. Leaves begin to fall down the trees. The sky is grey and it often rains.
When winter comes we spend more time at home, because it is cold. But when snow comes the ground as a white carpet children like to play snowballs, to make snowman, to skate, to ski.
My favourite book
It’s hard to imagine our lives without books. We learn a lot of interesting things when we read books. Books are our great friend and teachers.
I am fond of reading. I like to read adventure stories, fairy tales, history books.
When you read books you find your selves in different lands. Together with the characters of the books you climb high mountains, go by ship in the stormy sea, fly into space. In a ward, you have a lot of adventures.
There are books and writers that everybody knows. “Mary Poppins” by Pamela Travers, “Winnie-the-Pooh” by Alan Milne, and of course “The adventures of Tom Sawyer” by Mark Twain.
My favorite book is “Tom Sawyer” . Tom Sawyer was a boy with wild imagination. He and his friends liked to play games, dreamt of different adventures. Tom was sometimes naughty and never quiet. But he was often noble and always bright and full of ideas, I also enjoy books about animals. Have you ever heard of Bambi? He is a baby dear who is famous all over the world. “Bambi” is a book by an Austrian writer Felix Salthen. Its author is a poet who feels nature deeply and loves animals.
I have a friend. His name is Denis. He is a pupil of the 8 form. He is lovely boy with dark hair and brown eyes. He is 13. My friend is a clever and industrious boy. He studies well. Besides he is fond of basketball. He plays the basketball very well. My friend knows a lot of interesting things.
Denis has a sweet nature. He is attentive and thoughtful to people. He helps his parent about the house. He washes the dishes, tidies up the flat and goes shopping. Denis has a pet. It’s a dog. He takes good care of his and always goes for a walk with him.
We spend much time together, and almost never quarrel. On days-of we go to the cinema, and when the weather is fine we like to play outdoors.
What I like in him is that he always keeps his word and never boasts.
There is a proverb: a friend in need is a friend indeed. And I may say, that these words are about my friend. Because he is always ready to help me, when I am in troubles.
I think Denis is the very good friend.
We ought to take care of everything that nature gives us
Nature gives people everything they need for their lives. People have learnt to use the soil, the water, the minerals on the earth and under the earth.
Forests are the lungs of the planet. They give us fresh air, from the forest we get wood to build the houses, the furniture and what-not. Paper is also made from wood. Can you imagine our life without a common piece of paper. No books, no newspapers. Terrible, isn’t it? Most of our clothes are also made from natural material: leather, wool, cotton.
People will simply die if nature is spoiled. It may sound strange, but no one does more harm to nature than people do.
Plants and factories throw their wastes into seas and oceans, pollute water, contaminate sea animals and fish. Some birds and animals have disappeared from the earth in this century. People often killed them for their beautiful skins and feather.
But today there are people in all parts of the world who are trying to protect wild animals and birds. There is even an international organization called “Green Peace” . Reservations for rare plants and animals are set up in different parts of the world. Hunting is not allowed there.
We all love our Earth. We love its green fields and forests, mountains, rivers and lakes. We must take care of every thing that grows and lives on the Earth.
We like to travel
Thousands of people spend their holidays travelling. They travel by trains, by buses, by sea, by air or in their own cars.
A lot of people travel in their own cars. Wonderful landscapes of our country attract lovers of nature. People travel not only to enjoy picturesque places, but also to see ancient monuments and other places of interest.
Hiking is becoming very popular. People like to spend their days-off in the country. Happy they return home to plan new hikes for the coming weekend.
Some people prefer travelling by train, others by sea. It’s very comfortable, especially if you don’t feel seasick.
In fine weather the passengers I like to look at the ship with its many decks and cabins. It looks like a white flouting city. When the sea is a little rough, the ship rolls from side to side. Some passengers feel seasick.
I like to watch the sea-gulls, listen to their cries when they fly over the waves.
It’s also fine to travel by trains. From a comfortable railway carriage you have a splendid view of a country side.
And of course it’s not bad to travel in a car. You may stop at any place you like, have lunch under a shady tree or swim in a cool river or a like.
Sport is good for all
People all over the world are fond of sport. Sport activities are very important for the growing organism of a child. Children showed not neglect this fact.
There are many sport clubs that they can join us. Light athletics gives much opportunity to those who go in for it. It includes track field events: running, long-jumping, high jumping, discus throwing and others.
Many children are fond of ball games: basketball, volleyball, football. They are so exiting. Besides they are played all year round. Children like to take part in the competitions to see who is the quickest, the strongest, who can jump best, who is the best swimmer or player. Pupils in different classes hold competitions in different kinds of sport. Many boys and girls show good results. All the competitions and games are very popular with the pupils. A lot of fans always come to watch them.
My favourite sport is basketball. Basketball is a wonderful sport. It’s a good exercise too. It makes us strong and healthy.
To become a good sportsman you must train a lot. If you want to be good at something you have to work hard. Practice makes perfect.
All around you
The world is full of wonderful things. You see the blue sky and the grey rain, the black night and the shiny stars, trees and mountains, seas and sunshine. These things are the world, and they are all around you.
It’s interesting to know why we need the Sun, why the moon is bright, what animals live on the Earth.
The world we live on is a big round ball. It’s turning all the time, but we can’t feel it.
The Sun shines on the Earth the rain falls on it.
Different plants grow on the Earth, different animals live on it. The forests are full of berries and mushrooms.
There is water around the land. It’s called the World Ocean. There is life in the Ocean too. Different sea animals and fishes live in the ocean.
Nature gives us every thing we need for our life. People grow food on the ground. Animals give us meat and milk. We must take good care of nature.
Keep your eyes and ears open and you’ll see a lot of interesting thing around you.
Planning a day
My working day begins rather early. I wake up at 6.30, I am not an early – riser and its difficult for me to get up so early. Then I go to the bathroom, wash my face, clean my teeth and comb my hair. After that I dress myself.
In the morning I don’t have much time for breakfast, so I have a cup of tea with a sandwich. Then I take my schoolbag and run to the bus stop. My way to school is rather hard because of the traffic. I live rather far from school. It takes me nearly 40 minutes to get there. The buses and trolley-buses are usually overcrowded in the morning. And it’s a problem to get into it. I must elbow my way to stand somewhere in the corner. Nobody can call such a ride a pleasure, neither can I.
At last I am at school, and the day’s work begins. Usually we have six or seven lessons a day with ten minute breaks.
At 1.30 the school is over. But my working day is not, I have to do my homework at 2.00 p. m. I come home, change my clothes, wash my hands and have dinner. After dinner I have a short rest and then I do my homework.
Most of all I like evening hours, when the family gets together. We like to have dinner together and speak about our problems. Then we watch TV, or read. At 11 o’clock I go to bed. At 6.30 in the morning the alarm clock wakes me up, and I am happy to start a new day.
Holiday in the USA
In the USA different states celebrate different holidays, but everyone remembers the 4 th of July, “Independence day” . On this day in 1776 America signed the Declaration of Independence. On that day people go out into the streets and take part in the parades. The second big American festival is Thanksgiving day. It is celebrated in November. American families meet for a special dinner, usually with turkey, pumpkin and pies. They give thanks to God for the past year, remember the first harvest of European Americans in 1621.
Children always have fun at Halloween on October 31. They dress up as ghosts and witches. They go from house and say “Trick or Treat” . If they get a “treat” , they go away happy. But if they don’t, they play a “trick” . They might put soap on the windows or throw in the garden.
February the 14 th is Saint Valentine’s Day. People send valentine cards to their sweethearts of friends with words of love.
Christmas is celebrated at the end of December. It’s a religious holiday, the birth of Jesus Christ. By this day people decorate fir-trees with toys and lights. Christmas is a very busy time. People hurry to the shops to buy presents for their nearest and dearest. On New Year’s Day most people stay up all night, even children. At midnight they go outside and shout “Happy New Year!”